Because of its ancient German associations and because of its large German-speaking population, Alsace-Lorraine was incorporated into the German Empire after Frances defeat in the Franco-German War (1870–71).
Is Lorraine German?Most of Lorraine has a clear French identity, with the exception of the northeastern part of the region, today known as Moselle, which historically has had an ethnic German, and German-speaking, population.
What does the word Twining mean?1. To twist together (threads, for example); intertwine. 2. To form by twisting, intertwining, or interlacing: twined the cord from plant fibers.
What is the meaning of twinning is winning?Twinning is a new portmanteau (かばん語) of the words Twin and Winning. It means when two people have the same brilliant (目覚しい) thought or action at the same time. Then they may say Were twinning! But this word is very new, so not many people know it.
Why do I feel twinges in my stomach?Some women experience feelings inside their stomachs in the early stages of pregnancy that replicate the sensation of their muscles being pulled and stretched. Sometimes referred to as abdominal twinges, these tingles are nothing to worry about.
What is the meaning of twinges?1 : a sudden sharp stab of pain. 2 : a moral or emotional pang a twinge of conscience a twinge of sympathy.
What does twinnie mean?Filters. A surfboard with two fins. 2005: Interestingly, Kelly Slater began his surfing life on a twinnie before making the logical leap to three fins.
Modern Germany was formed in 1871 whenwith the notable exception ofinto the. After theGermany lost about 10% of its territory to its neighbours and the was formed. This republic included territories to the east of. The period of rule from the early 1930s through the end of the brought significant territorial losses for the country.
The Nazis' fortunes changed after the failure of the. The Nazi regime eventually collapsed, and the occupied Germany.
The were ceded to and the and the became Germany's new eastern boundary. In the west, the formed a French-controlled protectorate with limited autonomy, but its own citizenship laws. Western-occupied declared its accession to the Federal Republic of Germany in 1949 but was denied by the occupying powers.
Effective 1 January 1957 the Saar Protectorate declared its accession to the Federal Republic of Germany, as provided by its constitution article no.
Following the end of theEast Germany, including East Berlin, and West Berlin used the same West German constitutional clause and declared their accession to the Federal Republic of Germany effective 3 October 1990 — an event referred to as. Main article: Part of the motivation behind the territorial changes is based on historical events in Germany and.
Migrations that took place over more than a millennium led to pockets of Germans living throughout Central and Eastern Europe as far Are people in Alsace-Lorraine German? as Russia. The existence of these enclaves was sometimes used by German nationalists, such as the Nazis, to justify territorial claims.
The latter half of the 19th century and the first half of the 20th century saw the rise of in Europe. Previously, a country consisted largely of whatever peoples lived on the land that was under the dominion of a particular ruler. As principalities and kingdoms grew through conquest and marriage, a ruler could wind up with many different ethnicities under his dominion.
Switzerland was the exception, lacking a common native language. Much conflict would arise when one nation asserted territorial rights to land outside its borders on the basis of an ethnic bond with the people living on the land.
Another source of conflict arose when a group of people who constituted a minority in one nation would seek to secede from the nation either to form an independent nation or join another nation with whom they felt stronger ties. Yet another source of conflict was the desire of some nations to expel people from territory within its borders because people did not share a common bond with the majority of people of that nation. During the between 1772 and 1795, Prussia seized 141,400 km2 54,600 sq mi of the Commonwealth's western territory, including the regions of, and the.
Subsequently, renaming them as South Prussia, West Prussia, New East Prussia and New Silesia. After the annexation of the Polish territories, immediately sent 57,475 German families to the newly conquered lands in order to solidify his new acquisitions, and abolished the use of the Polish language. In some areas of Prussia's easternsuch as thethe majority of Are people in Alsace-Lorraine German?
population was Polish. Many Lorrainians were by native language French. The Heligolanders, then still prevailingly fluent in their dialect ofadopted German citizenship, like many other of Germany along the North Sea coast. Most of these territories were in effect ceded to the German Empire, intended to become economically dependent on and politically closely tied to that empire under different German and. Are people in Alsace-Lorraine German? of this territory had already been occupied by Polish rebels during the of 1918-1919 53,800 km 2 or 20,800 sq mi, 4,224,000 inhabitants 1931including 510 km 2 or 200 sq mi and 26,000 inhabitants from Upper Silesia.
Minor areas of both the provinces remained in Germany and were combined to become the new Prussian province of. In these territories ceded to Poland, a sizeable German population remained. The vote was designed to provide guidance on how to divide the area, and most of the areas voting for Poland were separated from Germany. During this time the coal was given to France. Once Are people in Alsace-Lorraine German?
ofthey had proclaimed the German-Austrian province of Sudetenland in October 1918, voting instead to join the newly declared Republic of in November 1918. However, this had been forbidden by the victorious allied powers of the First World War the and Are people in Alsace-Lorraine German?
the Czechoslovak government, partly with force of arms in 1919. After the war, Germany's and Austria-Hungary's loss of territory and the rise of communism in the Soviet Union meant that more Germans than ever constituted sizable minorities in various countries. Many of the themes of the Nazi regime against Czechoslovakia and Poland claimed that the ethnic Germans in those territories were persecuted.
The Nazis negotiated a number of population transfers with Joseph Stalin and others with Benito Mussolini so that both Germany and the other country would increase their ethnic homogeneity. However, these population transfers were not sufficient to appease the demands of the Nazis. This was a clear violation of the Treaty of Versailles 1919, official end of World War Iand as such, France and Britain were within their rights, via the Treaty, to oust the German forces.
British public opinion blocked any use of military force, thus preventing French action, as they were internally divided and would not act without British support.
As a result, anti-Nazi groups campaigned heavily for the Saarland to remain under control of as long as Adolf Hitler ruled Germany. However, long-held sentiments against France remained entrenched, with very few sympathizing openly with France. When the 15-year-term was over, a was held in the territory Are people in Alsace-Lorraine German? 13 January 1935: 90. On 17 January 1935, the territory's re-union with Germany was approved by the. As the new was extended to theincluding the historicthe region's name was changed again on 8 April Are people in Alsace-Lorraine German?
to Saar-Palatinate. After thethe French of was incorporated in the. This notwithstanding, the Anschluss was among the first major steps in the Austrian-born Adolf Hitler's long-desired creation of an empire including German-speaking lands and territories Germany had lost after World War I. The events of 12 March 1938, marked the culmination of historical cross-national pressures to unify the German populations of Austria and Germany under one nation.
However, the 1938 Anschluss, regardless of its popularity, was enacted by Germany. Earlier, Hitler's Germany had provided support for the Austrian Nazi Party in its bid to seize power from Austria's leadership. Fully devoted to remaining independent but amidst growing pressures, the chancellor of Austria,tried to hold a.
Although Schuschnigg expected Austria to vote in favour of maintaining autonomy, a well-planned by the Austrian Nazi Party of Austria's state institutions in took place on 11 March, prior to the vote. With power quickly transferred over to Germany, the troops entered Austria to enforce the Anschluss. The Nazis held a within the following month, where they received 99. No fighting ever took place and the strongest voices against the annexation, particularlyand the United Kingdom parties to thewere powerless or, in the case of Italy, appeased.
The Czechoslovak government capitulated on September 30 and reluctantly agreed to abide by the agreement. The settlement gave Germany the starting October 10, and de facto control over the as long as Hitler promised to go no further.
Hitler and Chamberlain signed an additional resolution determining to resolve all future disputes between Germany and the United Kingdom through peaceful means. This is often confused with the Four-Power Munich Agreement itself, not least because most photographs of Chamberlain's return show him waving the paper containing the resolution, not the Munich Agreement itself.
Without which was built in Sudetenland, Czechoslovakia was now defenseless. On 5 October, resigned asrealising that the fall of Czechoslovakia was. Following the outbreak ofhe would form a in. The eastern half of the country,became a separate pro-Nazi state, the.
Prime Minister Chamberlain felt betrayed by the Nazi seizure of Czechoslovakia, realising his policy of towards Hitler had failed, and immediately began to mobilize the British Empire's armed forces on a war footing. In the early hours of 23 March 1939, after a political ultimatum had made a Lithuanian delegation travel tothe Lithuanian Minister of Foreign Affairs and his German counterpart signed the Treaty of the Cession of the Memel Territory Are people in Alsace-Lorraine German?
Germany in exchange for a Lithuanian Free Zone in the port of Memel, using the facilities erected Are people in Alsace-Lorraine German? previous years. The of the voted to become a part of Germany again, although and were deprived of their voting rights and all non- political parties were banned. Parts of Poland that had not been part of were also incorporated into the.
These territories had an area of 94,000 km 2 36,000 sq mi and a population of 10,000,000 people. The remainder of the Polish territory was annexed by the c. The German government never negotiated or declared a formal annexation, however, in order to preserve the possibility of an agreement with the West. It was formally annexed to Germany in August 1942.
In the context of those decisions, the problem arose of what to do about ethnic minorities within the redrawn borders. The Allies occupied Germany, but the Western allies and Soviet Union formed separate governments covering specific parts of Germanyas well asand. The Germanies and West Berlin reunified in 1990. The precise location of the border was left open; the western Allies also accepted in general the principle of the Oder River as the future western border of Poland and of population transfer as the way to prevent future border disputes.
The open question was whether the border should follow the eastern or western Neisse rivers, and whetherthe traditional seaport of Berlin, should remain German or be included in Poland. Originally, Are people in Alsace-Lorraine German? was to retain Stettin while the Poles were to annex with. Eventually, however, Stalin decided that he wanted Königsberg as a year-round for the Soviet Navy and argued that the Poles should receive Stettin instead. The wartime Polish government in exile had little to say in these decisions.
After the war, Germany would be split into four occupied zones, with a quadripartite occupation of Berlin as well, prior to unification of Germany. France would Are people in Alsace-Lorraine German? be granted a seat in the. It was agreed to reorganize the that had been set up by the Red Army through the inclusion of other groups such as the and to have democratic elections.
Territorial evolution of Germany
This effectively excluded the that had evacuated in 1939. The purpose was to decide whether Germany was to be divided into several nations, and if so, what borders and inter-relationships the new German states were to have. It was anticipated that a final would follow shortly and either confirm this border or determine whatever alterations might be agreed upon.
Northern East Prussia and Memelland were placed under Soviet administrative control. The 1919 Versailles Treaty created Free City of Danzig was also placed under Polish administration. The territories east of the new border comprisedall of except for its westernmost part around the city oftheand most of including former Grenzmark Posen-West Are people in Alsace-Lorraine German?.
These areas included large urban centres such as, and so on. France, which had not participated in the Potsdam conference, took its liberties to dismiss this point and therefore refused to absorb any expellees in its zone of occupation.
It regulated the issue of the eastern German border, which was to be the Oder—Neisse line, but the final article of the memorandum said that the final decisions concerning Germany were to be subject to a separate peace treaty.
Based upon this interpretation of the Potsdam Agreement, the controlled German government maintained that the was completely unacceptable and subject to negotiation. Also the Social Democrats of the initially refused to accept the Oder—Neisse line.
In the 1970; ratified in 1972 recognized the Oder—Neisse line as Poland's western border and renounced any present and future territorial claims; this was reaffirmed by both German states in the 1990 as a pre-condition for re-union.
The treaty was ratified in 1991 by the united Germany. United Germany and Poland then finally settled the issue of the Oder—Neisse border by the in November 1990.
This ended the legal limbo which meant that for 45 years, people on both sides of the border could not be sure whether the status quo reached in 1945 might be changed at some future date. The detached territory, in 1956 containing 704 inhabitants including refugees, was, prior to its 1956 dissolution and partition between West Germany and Belgium, Are people in Alsace-Lorraine German?
as an independent territory by Belgian Army Major Generalwho enjoyed dictatorial powers. On 23 April 1949, Dutch troops occupied an area of 69 km 2 27 sq mithe largest parts of which were near and. Many other small border changes were executed, mostly in the vicinity Are people in Alsace-Lorraine German?
and. At that time, these areas were inhabited by a total of almost 10,000 people. Starting in March 1957, West Germany negotiated with the Netherlands for the return of these areas. The negotiations led to an agreement : Vertrag vom 8. April 1960 zwischen der Bundesrepublik Deutschland und dem Königreich der Niederlande zur Regelung von Grenzfragen und anderen zwischen beiden Ländern bestehenden Problemen; short: Ausgleichsvertrag, i.
The territory was Are people in Alsace-Lorraine German? to Germany on 1 August 1963, except for one small hill about 3 km 2, 1. Like the the Saar area was out of the jurisdiction of the and thus not part of. However, unlike the eastern territories, the domestic Saar population was not expelled by the controlling French.
With the effect of 1 January 1957, the Saar Protectorate declared its accession to the Federal Republic of Germany, as provided by its constitution art. Frederick the Great: A Historical Profile. Berkeley: University of California Press.