Question: Are Mormons polygamists in Canada?

Canada passes legislation outlawing polygamy, with specific language targeting Mormonism. 1947: A religious commune is established in Creston Valley near Lister, B.C., reportedly by three men expelled from a nearby Mormon church for refusing to renounce polygamy.

Where do polygamists live in Canada?

Bountiful is a settlement in the Creston Valley of southeastern British Columbia, Canada, near Cranbrook and Creston. The closest community is Lister, British Columbia. Bountiful is made up of members of two polygamist Mormon fundamentalist groups.

Is there polygamy in Canada?

While polygamy is permitted according to the Quran, the Canadian Council of Imams says polygamous marriages are invalid because they go against Canadian law.

What is Canadas most famous polygamous family?

Canadas Merlin Blackmore belongs to the worlds largest polygamous family based in Bountiful, British Columbia. His father, 64-year-old Winston Blackmore has 27 wives and 150 children. After nearly 21 years, Merlin, 19, has opened up about how it feels to live in a huge polygamous cult.

When did Canada ban polygamy?

November 2011 November 2011: The B.C. Supreme Court upholds Canadas polygamy laws in a reference case, ruling that a section of the Criminal Code banning plural marriages is constitutional. The courts chief justice finds that the harm against women and children outweighs concerns over protecting religious freedom.

Can I have 4 wives in Canada?

It is a criminal offence in Canada to have more than one spouse. Section 293 of the Criminal Code prohibits polygamous relationships. Polygamy is an umbrella term that encompasses polyandry, polygyny, and bigamy. Polyandry is when a woman has more than one husband and polygyny is when a man has more than one wife.

When a man is married to more than one wife at the same time, sociologists call this. When a woman is married to more than one husband at a time, it is called. In contrast to polygamy, is marriage consisting of only two parties. In andresearchers use polygamy in a broad sense to mean any form of multiple. Worldwide, different societies variously encourage, accept or outlaw polygamy. In societies which allow or tolerate polygamy, in the vast majority of cases the form accepted is polygyny.

According to the 1998of 1,231 societies noted, 588 had frequent polygyny, 453 had occasional polygyny, 186 were monogamous and 4 had polyandry — although more recent research suggests that polyandry may occur more commonly than previously thought. In cultures which practice polygamy, its prevalence among that population often correlates with and socioeconomic status. Scientific studies classify the human mating system as primarily monogamous, with the cultural Are Mormons polygamists in Canada?

of polygamy in the minority, based both on surveys of world populations, and on characteristics of human reproductive physiology.

In several countries, such asthe law only recognizes polygamous marriages for the Muslim population. It is derived from the religious precepts of Islam, particularly the and the. Inthe term sharīʿah refers to 's : الله immutable and is contrasted withwhich refers to its human scholarly interpretations.

Polygyny is more widespread in than on any other continent, especially inand some scholars see the 's impact on the male-to-female sex ratio as a key factor in the emergence and fortification of polygynous practices in regions of Africa.

In the region ofpolygyny is common and deeply rooted in the culture, with 11% of the population of sub-Saharan Africa living in such marriages 25% of the Muslim population and 3% of the Christian Are Mormons polygamists in Canada?, as of 2019.

According to Pew, polygamy is widespread in a cluster of countries in West and Central Africa, including Burkina Faso, 36%Mali 34% and Nigeria 28%. Anthropologist 's comparative study of marriage around the world utilizing the demonstrated a historical correlation between the practice of extensive and polygamy in the majority of sub-Saharan African societies.

Are Mormons polygamists in Canada? on the work ofGoody notes that the sexual division of labour varies between the male-dominated intensive common in Eurasia and the extensive shifting horticulture found in sub-Saharan Africa. In some of the sparsely-populated regions where shifting cultivation takes place in Africa, women do much of the work.

Goody however, observes that the correlation is imperfect and varied, and also discusses more traditionally male-dominated though relatively extensive farming systems such as those traditionally common in much of West Africa, especially in the West Africanwhere more agricultural work is done by men, and where polygyny is desired by men more for the generation of male offspring whose labor is valued.

He notes Dorjahn's 1959 comparison of East and West Africa, showing higher female agricultural contributions in East Africa and higher polygyny rates in West Africa, especially the West African savanna, where one finds especially high male agricultural contributions.

Polygyny offers husbands the benefit of allowing them to have more children, may provide them with a larger number of productive workers where workers are familyand allows them to establish politically useful ties with a greater number of.

Senior wives can benefit as well when the addition of junior wives to the family lightens their. Wives', especially senior wives', status in a community can increase through the addition of other wives, who add to the family's prosperity or symbolize conspicuous consumption much as a large house, domestic help, or expensive vacations operate in a.

For Are Mormons polygamists in Canada? reasons, senior wives sometimes work hard or contribute from their own resources to enable their husbands to accumulate the for an extra wife. Polygyny may also result from the practice of.

In such cases, the deceased man's heir may inherit his assets and wife; or, more usually, Are Mormons polygamists in Canada?

brothers may marry the widow. This provides support for the widow and her children usually also members of the brothers' kin group and maintains the tie between the husbands' and wives' kin groups. The resembles the levirate, in that a widower must marry the sister of his dead wife.

The family of the late wife, in other words, must provide a replacement for her, thus maintaining the marriage alliance. Both levirate and sororate may result in a man having multiple wives. Village chief and his wives in Guinea, c.

This constitutes a form of polygyny referred to as. In many polygynous marriages the husband's wives may live in separate households. It takes place only in remote communities. Polyandry is believed to be more common in societies with scarce environmental resources, as it is believed to limit human population growth and enhance child survival. It is a rare form of marriage that exists not only among poor families, but also the elite.

For example, in the Himalayan Mountains polyandry is related to the scarcity of land; the marriage of all brothers in a family to the same wife allows family land to remain intact and undivided. If every brother married separately and had children, family land would be split into unsustainable small plots. In Europe, this outcome was avoided through the social practice ofunder which most siblings would be disinherited. It is most common in societies marked by high male mortality.

It is associated with partible paternity, the cultural belief that a child can have more than one father. Non-fraternal polyandry occurs when the wives' husbands are unrelated, as among thewhere girls undergo a ritual marriage before puberty, and the first husband is acknowledged as the father of all her children. However, the woman may never cohabit with that man, taking multiple lovers instead; these men must acknowledge the paternity of their children and hence demonstrate that no prohibitions have been breached by paying the.

The women remain in their maternal home, living with their brothers, and property is passed. A similar form of matrilineal, de facto polyandry can be found in the institution of among the tribe of China. According to Danish scholar Miriam K.

Zeitzen, anthropologists treatin which divorce and remarriage occur, as a form of polygamy as it also can establish a series of households that may continue to be tied by shared paternity and shared income.

As such, they are similar to the household formations created through divorce and serial monogamy. The term does not refer to as no claim to being married in formal legal terms is made.

Normally Buddhist monks do not participate in it though in some sects Are Mormons polygamists in Canada? and monks do marry. Hence marriage receives no religious sanction. Forms of marriage, in consequence, vary from country to country. Other fragments in the Buddhist scripture seem to treat polygamy unfavorably, leading some authors to conclude that Buddhism generally does not approve of it or alternatively regards it as a tolerated, but subordinate, marital model. Inpolyandry was legal in the kingdom of Kandy, but outlawed by British after conquering the kingdom in 1815.

When the Buddhist texts were translated into Chinese, the of others were added to the list of inappropriate partners. Most typically, fraternal polyandry is practiced, but sometimes father and son have a common wife, which is a unique family structure in the world.

Other forms of marriage are also present, like group marriage and monogamous marriage. Polyandry especially fraternal polyandry is also common among Buddhists in, and other parts of the. In some areas this continued even after Christianization began, for instance the of explicitly allowed for polygamy, especially amongst the noble class.

Are Mormons polygamists in Canada?

Some modern Celtic pagan religions accept the practice of polygamy to varying degrees, though how widespread the practice is within these religions is unknown. Nevertheless, some Christians groups in different periods have practiced, or currently do practice, polygamy.

Some Christians actively debate whether the or allows or forbids polygamy. For, as it is written, 'The two will become one flesh. Some Christian theologians argue that in Matthew 19:3—9 and referring to Genesis 2:24, explicitly states a man should have only one wife: Have ye not read, that he Are Mormons polygamists in Canada? made them at the beginning made them male and female, And said, For this cause shall a man leave father and mother, and shall cleave to his wife: and they twain shall be one flesh?

Similar counsel is repeated in the first chapter of the. Periodically, Christian reform movements that have sought to rebuild Christian doctrine based on the Bible alone have temporarily accepted polygyny as a Biblical practice. The double marriage was to be done in secret, however, to avoid public scandal. For instance,the Christianhas 15 wives. In some instances in recent times, there have been moves for accommodation; in other instances, churches have strongly resisted such moves.

African Independent Churches have sometimes referred to those parts of the that describe polygamy in defense of the practice. Polygamy is contrary to conjugal love which is undivided and exclusive. He refrained from judging the patriarchs, but did not deduce from their practice the ongoing acceptability of polygyny.

On the contrary, he argued that the polygamy of the Fathers, which was tolerated by the Creator because of fertility, was a diversion from His original plan for human marriage. He supported his premise by showing that their marriages, in which husband was the head, were arranged according to the rules of good management: those who are in command quae principantur in their society were always singular, while subordinates subiecta were multiple.

He gave two examples of such relationships: dominus-servus — master-servant in older translation: slave and God-soul. The Bible often equates worshiping multiple gods, i. For there is not now necessity of begetting children, as there then was, when, even when wives bear children, it was allowed, in order to a more numerous posterity, to marry other wives in addition, which now is certainly not lawful. And yet it is not allowed; and now indeed in our times, and after the usage of Rome nostris quidem iam temporibus ac more Romanoneither to marry in addition, so as to have more than one wife living.

But, that the laws of the Gentiles are otherwise, who is there that knows not. The Roman Catholic Church teaches in its Catechism that polygamy is not in accord with the moral law.

The illegality of polygamy in certain areas creates, according to certain Bible passages, additional arguments against it. The Lutheran Church in Liberia, however, does not permit polygamists who have become Christians to marry more wives after they have received the sacrament of.

Are Mormons polygamists in Canada? Lutheran missionaries in Maasai also tolerate the practice of polygamy and in Southern Sudan, some polygamists are becoming Lutheran Christians. Despite Smith's revelation, the 1835 edition of the 101st Section of the Doctrine and Covenants, written after the doctrine of plural marriage began to be practiced, publicly condemned polygamy. This scripture was used by in 1850 to quash Mormon polygamy rumors in.

Polygamy was made illegal in the state of during the 1839—44 era when several top Mormon leaders, including Smith, and took multiple wives. Mormon elders who publicly taught that all men were commanded to enter plural marriage were subject to harsh discipline. On 7 June 1844 the criticized Smith for plural marriage. Additional sermons by top Mormon Are Mormons polygamists in Canada? on the virtues of polygamy followed. In 1862, issued the which clarified that the practice of polygamy was illegal in all.

Even so, many plural husbands and wives continued to cohabit until their deaths in the 1940s and 1950s. Polygamy among these groups persists today in and neighboring states as well as in the Are Mormons polygamists in Canada? colonies. Such fundamentalists often Are Mormons polygamists in Canada?

a purported to as the basis for their authority to continue the practice of plural marriage. For most of his career, Smith denied that his father had been involved in the practice and insisted that it had originated with Brigham Young. Smith served many missions to the western United States, where he met with and interviewed associates and women claiming to be widows of his father, who attempted to present him with evidence to the Are Mormons polygamists in Canada?.

However, many members of the and some of the groups that were previously associated with it are not convinced that Joseph Smith practiced plural marriage and they believe that the evidence which indicates that he practiced it is flawed. The practice is attested in epics like and. The permit a man to marry women provided that the first wife agree to marry him.

Despite its existence, it was most usually practiced by men of higher status. Common people were only allowed a second marriage if the first wife could not bear a son or have some dispute because there is no law for divorce in Hinduism.

According tothe number of wives is linked to the knowledge system: Now a may take many wives in the direct order of the four knowledge; A means warrior Are Mormons polygamists in Canada?, three; A means business knowledge, two; A means cleaning knowledge, one only This linkage of the number of permitted wives to the knowledge system is also supported by Dharmasutra and Paraskara Grihyasutra.

The Dharmasutra and allow a second wife if the first one is unable Are Mormons polygamists in Canada? discharge her religious duties or is unable to bear a child or have any dispute because in Hinduism there was no law for divorce. For a Brahmana, only one wife could rank as the chief consort who performed the religious rites dharma-patni along with the husband. The chief consort had to be of an equal knowledge.

If a man married several women from the same knowledgeable, then eldest wife is the chief consort. Hindu kings commonly had more than Are Mormons polygamists in Canada? wife and are regularly attributed four wives by the scriptures. They were: Mahisi who was the chief consort, Parivrkti who had no son, Vaivata who is considered the favorite wife and the Palagali who was the daughter of the last of the court officials.

Traditional Hindu law allowed polygamy if the first wife could not bear a child. The was enacted in 1955 by the and made polygamy illegal for Are Mormons polygamists in Canada? in India except for Muslims. Prior to 1955, polygamy was permitted for Hindus. Marriage laws in India are dependent upon the religion of the parties in question.

Muslim women are not permitted to have at the same time under any circumstances. Based on verse 30:21 of the ideal relationship is the comfort that a couple find in each other's embrace: And among His Signs is this, that He created for you mates from among yourselves, that ye may dwell in tranquillity with them, and He has put love and mercy between your hearts : verily in that are Signs for those who reflect.

There are strict requirements to marrying more than one woman, as the man must treat them fairly financially and in terms of support given to each wife, according to Islamic law. However, Islam advises monogamy for a man if he fears he cannot deal justly with his wives. This is based on verse 4:3 of which says: If ye fear that ye shall not be able to deal justly with the orphans, Marry women of your choice, Two or three or four; but if ye fear that ye shall not be able to deal justly with themthen only one, or one that your right hands possess, that will be more suitable, to prevent you from doing injustice.

However, in the case of a or their husbands' death they can remarry after the completion ofas divorce is legal in Islamic law. A non-Muslim woman who flees from her non-Muslim husband and accepts has the option to remarry without divorce from her previous husband, as her marriage with non-Muslim husband is Islamically dissolved on her fleeing. A non-Muslim woman captured during war by Muslims, can also remarry, as her marriage with her non-Muslim husband is Islamically dissolved at capture by Muslim soldiers.

This permission is given to such women in verse 4:24 of Quran. The verse also emphasizes on transparency, mutual agreement and financial compensation as prerequisites for matrimonial relationship as opposed to prostitution; it says: Also prohibited are women already married, except those whom your right hands possess: Thus hath Allah ordained Prohibitions against you: Except for these, all others are lawful, provided ye seek them in marriage with gifts from your property,- desiring chastity, not lust, seeing that ye derive benefit from them, give them their dowers at least as prescribed; but if, after a dower is prescribed, agree Mutually to vary itthere is no blame on you, and Allah is All-knowing, All-wise.

After her death, he married multiple Are Mormons polygamists in Canada?. Muhammad had a total of 9 wives at the same time, even though Muslim men were limited to 4 wives.

His total wives are 11. One reason cited for polygyny is that it allows a man to give financial protection to multiple women, who might otherwise not have any support e. However, some Islamic scholars say the wife can set a condition, in thethat the husband cannot marry another woman during their marriage. In such a case, the husband cannot marry another woman as long as he is married to his wife. However, other Islamic scholars state that this condition is not allowed. According to traditional Islamic law, each of those wives keeps their property and assets separate; and are paid separately by their husband.

Usually the wives have little to no contact with each other and lead separate, individual lives in their own houses, and sometimes in different cities, though they all share the same husband. In most Muslim-majority countries, polygyny is legal with being the only one where no restrictions are imposed on it.

The Are Mormons polygamists in Canada? is illegal in Muslim-majority,and countries. Countries that allow polygyny typically also require a man to obtain permission from his previous wives before marrying another, and require the man to prove that he can financially support multiple wives. In anda man must justify taking an additional wife at a court hearing before he is allowed to do so.

In Sudan, the government encouraged polygyny in 2001 to increase the population. Despite its prevalence in thesome scholars do not believe that polygyny was commonly practiced in the biblical era because it required a significant amount of wealth. The show that several smaller forbade polygamy before and during the time of. The Jewish Codices began a process of restricting polygamy in Judaism.

Most notable in the rabbinic period on the issue of polygamy, though more specifically forwas the synod of. Some such aswere known to have several wives.

Are Mormons polygamists in Canada?

Polygamy was common among Jewish communities in the Levant, possibly due to the influence of Muslim society, with 17% of divorce claims by women being due to complaints Are Mormons polygamists in Canada? husbands taking additional wives. Even in instances where the husband made prenuptial agreements not to marry additional wives, local rabbis found loopholes to allow them to do so anyway.

The assembly led by Rabbeinu Gershom instituted a ban on polygamy, but this ban was not well received by the Sephardic communities. In addition to the ban, Gershon also introduced a law called Heter meah rabbanim' ,' which allows the men to remarry with the permission from one hundreds rabis from different countries.

In the modern day, polygamy is generally not condoned by Jews. Some Jewish communities particularly and discontinued polygyny more recently, after they immigrated to countries where it was forbidden or illegal. In practice, however, the law is loosely enforced, primarily to avoid interference with culture, where polygyny is practiced. Pre-existing polygynous unions among or other countries where the practice was not prohibited by their tradition and was not illegal are not subject to this Israeli law.

But Mizrahi Jews are not permitted to enter into new polygamous marriages in Israel. However polygamy may still occur in Are Mormons polygamists in Canada? Jewish communities that exist in countries where it is not forbidden, such as Jewish communities in and. Provisions were instituted to allow for existing polygamous families immigrating from countries where the practice was legal. Furthermore, former chief rabbi has come out in favor of legalizing polygamy and the practice of concubine by the Israeli government.

Tzvi Zohar, a professor from therecently suggested that based on the opinions of leading authorities, the concept of concubines may serve as a practical halachic justification for premarital or non-marital cohabitation. There is no passage in the that favors polygamy or. However, tradition holds that had three wives. Polygamy appears to have been a right of spiritual dignitaries and aristocrats.

It is mentioned in foreign writings, such as the. For those who were the most virtuous and pious, he chose out princesses, that all might desire virtue and chastity. In Canada, the federal applies throughout the country. It extends the definition of polygamy to having any kind of conjugal union with more than one person at the same time. Also anyone who assists, celebrates, or is a part to a rite, ceremony, or contract that sanctions a polygamist relationship is guilty of polygamy.

Polygamy is an offence punishable by up to five years in prison. In 2017, two Canadian religious Are Mormons polygamists in Canada? were found guilty of practicing polygamy by the.

Are Mormons polygamists in Canada?

The states that a marriage can only be contracted between a man and a woman, neither of whom is married to someone else. Furthermore, Russia does not recognize polygamous marriages that had been contracted in other countries. However, under Russian law, de facto polygamy or multiple in and of itself is not a crime. Due to the imbalance between urban educated women and men in predominantly -inhabited regions of Russia men sometimes may have multiple women as wives one report claims.

This sometimes results in households that are openly de facto polygamous. In addition, immigration rules have generally prevented the Are Mormons polygamists in Canada? of polygamous households in this country since 1988. This is because, as explained above, the amounts which may be paid in respect of additional spouses are lower than those which generally apply to single claimants. Polygamy in remains a controversial issue that has been subject to legislative battles throughout the years.

Utah is the only state where it is an rather than a crime as of 2020; nevertheless recognizing polygamous unions is illegal under the. Federal legislation to outlaw the practice was endorsed as constitutional in 1878 by the Supreme Court indespite the religious objections of Mormons.

This Church subsequently ended the practice of polygamy around the turn of the twentieth century; however, several smaller groups across the state not associated with the mainstream Church continue the practice.

On 13 December 2013, aspurred by the and other groups, struck down the parts of Utah's bigamy law that criminalized cohabitation, while also acknowledging that the state may still enforce bans on having multiple marriage licenses.

This decision was overturned by thethus effectively recriminalizing polygamy as a felony. In 2020, Utah voted to downgrade polygamy from a felony to an infraction, but it remains a felony if force, threats or other abuses are involved.

Prosecutors in Utah have long had a policy of not pursuing polygamy in the absence of other associated crimes e. There are about 30,000 people living in polygamous communities in Utah. Authors such as Alyssa Rower and Samantha Slark argue that there is a case for legalizing polygamy on the basis of regulation and monitoring of the practice, legally protecting the polygamous partners and allowing them to join mainstream society instead of forcing them to hide from it when any public situation arises.

In an October 2004 op-ed forlaw professor argued that, as a simple matter of equal treatment under the law, polygamy ought to be legal. He stated: Marriage, as its ultramodern critics would like to say, is indeed about choosing one's partner, and about freedom in a society that values freedom. But that's not the only thing it is about.

As the Supreme Court justices who unanimously decided Reynolds in 1878 understood, marriage is also about sustaining the conditions in which freedom can thrive.

Polygamy in all its forms is a recipe for social structures that inhibit and ultimately undermine social freedom and democracy. A hard-won lesson of Western history is that genuine democratic self-rule begins at the hearth of the monogamous family. In January 2015, Pastor Neil Patrick Carrick of Detroit, Michigan, brought a case against the State of Michigan that the state's ban of polygamy violates the and of the U. The case was dismissed with prejudice on 10 February 2016, for lack of standing.

The argument ran that after the war, 3 to 4 Are Mormons polygamists in Canada? women would have to remain unmarried due to the great number of soldiers fallen in battle. In order to make it possible for these women to have children, a procedure for application and selection for suitable men i.

The privileged position of the first wife was to be secured by awarding her the title. The greatest fighter deserves the most beautiful woman. If the German man is to be unreservedly ready to die as a soldier, he must have the freedom to love unreservedly.

For struggle and love belong together. Dictionary of Standard Modern Greek in Greek. The Oxford Dictionary of Islam. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. Production and Reproduction: A Comparative Study of the Domestic Domain. Family Structure and Interaction: A Comparative Analysis 2nd, revised ed.

McNetting, Robert; Will, Richard; Arnould, Eric eds. Households: Comparative and Historical Studies of the Domestic Group. Berkeley: University of California Press. The Dynamics of polyandry: kinship, domesticity, and population on the Tibetan border. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland. Rosie Wilby, Is Monogamy Dead? For deeper, scholarly analysis, see e. Changing Families: An Ethnographic Approach to Divorce and Separation. Group Marriage: A Study of Contemporary Multilateral Marriage. Cauldron of the Gods: A manual of Celtic magick. A brief history of Ireland.

The Ministry of the Whole Person. Plural Marriage for Our Times: A Reinvented Option?. Polygamy in Northern Malawi: A Christian Reassessment. The Eye of the Storm: Bishop John William Colenso Are Mormons polygamists in Canada? the Crisis of Biblical Inspiration. Cleeve, James Robertson, and Philip Cater, and Elder John Taylor, Of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, At Boulogne-Sur-Mer, France.

Since the founding of the Roman empire monogamy has prevailed more extensively than in times previous to that. The founders of that ancient empire were robbers and women stealers, and made laws favoring monogamy in consequence of the scarcity of women among them, and hence this monogamic system Are Mormons polygamists in Canada?

now prevails throughout Christendom, and which had been so fruitful a source of prostitution and whoredom throughout all the Christian monogamic cities of the Are Mormons polygamists in Canada? and New World, until rottenness and decay are at the root of their institutions both national and religious. In Powell, Allan Kent ed. A joint report from the offices of the Attorneys General of Arizona and Utah.

When challenged this way he typically responded. Lochtefeld, PhD 15 December 2001. The Rosen Publishing Group, Inc. Acta Orientalia Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae.

Mormons

Jerusalem: Koren Publishers Jerusalem, 1980. In the Second Temple period in Palestine, plural marriage seems to have become less common than earlier, although it was not formally outlawed and was more common in Babylonia. It still appeared in the Talmud and was practiced occasionally in early medieval Europe. Gershom Me'or ha-Golah the Light of the Exilean eleventh- century German rabbi, possibly under Christian influence, eventually forbade it.

Edited by Yoram Dinstein and Nitza Shapiro-Libai. I 1971464 pp. The American Journal of Comparative Law. The Position of Zoroastrian Women in Remote Are Mormons polygamists in Canada?. With Introduction and Commentary by M. University of Minnesota Human Rights Library. Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights. United Nations Human Rights Website. Department of Justice, Government of Canada.

United Kingdom: House of Commons. Journal of Law and Family Studies. Polygamy, Bigamy and Human Rights Law. Polygamy Reconsidered: African Plural Marriage and the Christian Churches. World Religions and Social Evolution of the Old World Oikumene Civilizations: A Cross-cultural Perspective First ed. Lewiston, New York: Edwin Mellen Press.

Mormon Polygamy: A History 2nd ed. Wikiquote has quotations related to.

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